Disease of the kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra are rare in horses. However, horses occasionally present with clinical signs such as polyuria/polydipsia (increased urination and drinking), discoloured urine, urinary incontinence and stranguria (difficulty urinating). These presenting signs may be associated with primary renal diseases, endocrine disorders, urolithiasis (stones), infection, neurological and neuromuscular disorders, coagulopathies (bleeding disorders) and neoplasia (cancer). At Newnham Court Equine Clinic, we investigate these cases by performing detailed ultrasonographic examination of the urinary tract, both transabdominally and rectally. Blood and urine samples are analysed in our on-site laboratory. Videoendoscopy is available for examination of the urethra, bladder and lower ureters in foals, ponies and horses.